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Guide to BIRDS

The Miramare Biosphere Reserve, recognized by UNESCO as part of the MaB – Man and Biosphere (Man and Nature) program, encompasses almost the entirety of the Trieste coastline stretching between the municipalities of Trieste and Duino Aurisina. With the karst ridge behind and the marine area facing it, the Reserve encompasses an area of more than 3 thousand hectares, the core of which is the Marine Protected Area and the Miramare Castle Park. This is an area of high biodiversity of habitats and species of fauna and flora, both terrestrial and marine. Avifauna is no exception: more than 150 bird species have been observed in the territory of the Reserve, including 109 between the Marine Protected Area and the Miramare Historical Park.

This guide reports the illustration and description of 72 species, giving priority to those breeding (52) and those indicative of the various environments present. The coexistence of Mediterranean species such as the Sardinian warbler with mountain species such as the black woodpecker and the crossbill, favored by the planting pine forests, is a peculiarity of this area, despite the modest altitudinal variation. The sea in front with mussel farms is very rich in aquatic and marine species, partly due to the proximity of the wetlands in the western part of the Gulf of Trieste. Population centers and cultivation further increase the attractiveness for birds of this area, which is therefore a privileged place to practice their observation. The Napoleonica, the Sage Trail or Miramare Park will not disappoint if you know how to explore them with the help of binoculars and armed with the curiosity and patience typical of observers and Nature lovers.

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Guide to TREES and ARBUMS.

The Miramare Biosphere Reserve, recognized by UNESCO under the MaB – Man and Biosphere (Man and Nature) program, stretches along much of the Trieste coastline between the municipalities of Trieste and Duino Aurisina. With the karst ridge behind it and the marine area facing it, the Reserve encompasses an area of more than 3 thousand hectares, the core of which consists of the Marine Protected Area and the Miramare Castle Park.

In the terrestrial part, the high biodiversity of habitats and species that characterizes the entire Biosphere Reserve is accentuated by the diversity of rock formations and a particular variety of microclimates that allows the coexistence of rather peculiar plant associations. Prominent among the Reserve’s characteristic habitats are Illyrian ilex groves, in which species of Illyrian vegetation, such as manna ash and hornbeam, coexist with typically Mediterranean plants such as holm oak and phillyrea. We also find karst scrubland with downy oak, black hornbeam and manna ash, oak woodland, black pine reforestation, Aleppo pine forests and small, rare patches of hornbeam forest in cooler, wetter areas.

With this guidebook, dedicated to the trees and shrubs of the Reserve, we intend to offer a tool for identifying the most characteristic and representative species of this area but also for reading a landscape and environment that, while showing the imprint of human action, still maintains a great naturalness and offers the possibility of walking among scenic paths glimpsing the sea among the shrubs of the Mediterranean maquis or sheltering on inland paths in the shade of leafy trees, enjoying the spectacle of Nature in every season.

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The BIOSPHERE trail – Between nature and culture, history and traditions

An itinerary to discover the UNESCO MaB Reserve of Miramare and the Trieste coastline.

Those who are already familiar with the rich trail network that traverses the length and breadth of the karst ridge overlooking the Gulf of Trieste will certainly be familiar with the itineraries mapped out in this map: paths with breathtaking views of the Gulf or immersed in the dense vegetation, among karst scrub, Mediterranean scrub and plantation pine forests, capable of offering unexpected wildlife encounters, and beautiful blooms or striking foliage depending on the season in which they are traveled. Even to those who have already walked them several times, these paths tell stories that not everyone knows: the stories of the animal and plant species that inhabit them and of the landscapes and natural environments shaped by water and wind, but also the history of the men who have explored them over the centuries, the trades and activities that have developed thanks to the cultivation of the steep slopes exposed to the sun or the exploitation of the natural resources offered by the sea and the coast.

In this territory, rugged and generous at the same time, Man and Nature have found over the centuries the conditions to live together harmoniously: and this is why today the Trieste coastline, with the Miramare promontory at its center, is recognized by UNESCO as a Biosphere Reserve under the MaB – Man and Biosphere program (see below). This map-guide aims to accompany you in the discovery of this area through the “Biosphere Trail,” a simple historical-naturalistic itinerary suitable for everyone, which crosses the entire Miramare UNESCO MaB Reserve longitudinally, with some vertical “forays” towards the sea. A long itinerary, which can be “broken” into some shorter and circular routes (described below), which can be explored even in a few hours or in half a day and which will allow you to appreciate the naturalistic, geological, landscape and cultural-historical peculiarities that we tell you about in this mapguide. Happy reading, then, and happy walking!

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Naturalistic CARTOGUIDE

The Park of Miramare

When Maximilian of Habsburg fell in love with the Miramare promontory, rugged and barren overlooking the sea, he already envisioned it surrounded by a lush garden somewhere between an experimental reforestation station of local and exotic botanical species and a romantic landscape garden, ordered by paths and flower beds.

The synthesis of this dream is the Historical Park, now available to all its visitors.

Thanks to this nature map you will discover its secrets and curiosities, hidden even in its lesser-known corners.

Enjoy your walk!

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